The Rats in the Walls: The Role of Rodents on the Western Front

Mud-filled warrens littered with dung, detritus, and the dead may sound like a less than hospitable environment, but to the myriad millions that scurried along the trenches of the Western Front, these very conditions provided the fuel for explosive individual and population growth. Of course, I’m not talking about the soldiers that suffered in the […]

The New Normal: Gas-Etiquette and the Canadian Expeditionary Force

Two soldiers wearing gas masks examining a Lee Enfield rifle

The face of war changed forever when, on April 22nd, 1915, the Germans threw caution—and roughly 150 tons of chlorine—to the wind, gassing two French Colonial divisions along the Ypres front. Since then, the Great War has become inextricably linked to ominously coloured and suffocating gas clouds. Equally iconic are the ghoulish masks designed to […]

All Quiet Below the Western Front

soldiers working in a mine

In the early hours of July 7th, during a relatively quiet period for the Canadian Expeditionary Force in 1915, gunner Richard Walter Rayner moved to reoccupy his section of trench along the Ploegsteert sector of the Western Front. Temporarily assigned to aid a Signal company, Rayner worked to establish and maintain lines of communication with […]

‘A Grand Day’: Dominion Day 1918

men climbing into hanging barrels

Monday, July 1st, 1918 represented a major confluence of minor blessings for the Canadian Expeditionary Force. Unable to predict that the war would be over before the closing of the year, military leaders were taking steps to ensure their forces were trained, equipped, and rested for the battles ahead. For the CEF, this meant a […]

Summer in Thessalonica: The Malaria Epidemic of 1916

Soldiers Sunbathing Outside No. 4 Canadian General Hospital

In light of the present pandemic, much has been written comparing Covid-19 and the global response to the Spanish Flu of 1918-1919. However, influenza was hardly the only illness that proliferated during the Great War era. Given the unsanitary conditions of the battlefields and the high density of people along the various fronts, the First […]

The Spirit of our Troops: Rum Rationing as an ‘Essential Service’ on the Western Front

comic of a soldier drinking from a jug with his gun leaning on sandbags

As all non-essential activities grind to a halt in response to the COVID-19 Pandemic, one of the things carefully kept on the essential side of society has been liquor stores across the country. Officially, this limits alcoholism-related withdrawal and the resultant stresses that could cause to an already strained healthcare system. However, alcohol is also […]

Flying over Thessalonica

Nurse standing on Zeppelin wreckage

Despite its role in destabilizing Bulgaria and Austria-Hungary, the Macedonian front is often overlooked. Established in 1915, following Bulgaria’s declaration of war and the resulting collapse of the Serbian front, the Salonica front—alternatively referred to as the Macedonian Front—was established around the Greek city of Thessalonica. The multinational army of English, French, Greek, Italian, Serbian, […]

Newfoundland & Labrador’s Forget-Me-Not

Archived image of the Beaumont-Hamel Danger Tree, an iconic Newfoundland landmark from the battle of the Somme

Before 1949, Newfoundland was an independent British Dominion, and proud of it. As “Britain’s Oldest Colony,” the people of Newfoundland and Labrador proudly showcased their distinctiveness. The Newfoundland experience of the Great War would exemplify that pride and distinction, as would the commemoration that followed. Newfoundland and Labrador were swept into the Great War, as […]

Unveiling Women in War: The Voluntary Aid Detachment during the First World War

When Canadian men rushed to the recruiting stations in 1914, professionally trained nurses could enlist with the Canadian Army Medical Corps (CAMC); the first contingent, composed of 101 nursing sisters, sailed for England as early as September 1914. [1]  For women who were not trained nurses, however, there were relatively few opportunities to actively participate […]

Beyond the Poet: John McCrae and the Canadian Army Medical Corps

This Sunday, January 28th, will mark the centenary of the death of the well-known Canadian poet- John McCrae. Author of the poem In Flanders Fields, McCrae’s memory is immortalized in the words he wrote during the Second Battle of Ypres. The Canadian soldier, however, was more than just a poet. When the war broke out […]