The New Normal: Gas-Etiquette and the Canadian Expeditionary Force

Two soldiers wearing gas masks examining a Lee Enfield rifle

The face of war changed forever when, on April 22nd, 1915, the Germans threw caution—and roughly 150 tons of chlorine—to the wind, gassing two French Colonial divisions along the Ypres front. Since then, the Great War has become inextricably linked to ominously coloured and suffocating gas clouds. Equally iconic are the ghoulish masks designed to […]

Summer in Thessalonica: The Malaria Epidemic of 1916

Soldiers Sunbathing Outside No. 4 Canadian General Hospital

In light of the present pandemic, much has been written comparing Covid-19 and the global response to the Spanish Flu of 1918-1919. However, influenza was hardly the only illness that proliferated during the Great War era. Given the unsanitary conditions of the battlefields and the high density of people along the various fronts, the First […]

The Spirit of our Troops: Rum Rationing as an ‘Essential Service’ on the Western Front

comic of a soldier drinking from a jug with his gun leaning on sandbags

As all non-essential activities grind to a halt in response to the COVID-19 Pandemic, one of the things carefully kept on the essential side of society has been liquor stores across the country. Officially, this limits alcoholism-related withdrawal and the resultant stresses that could cause to an already strained healthcare system. However, alcohol is also […]