Bicycles in combat: Cyclists during the First World War

The First World War is often remembered for its static nature and trench warfare. In its opening stages, however, the opposing armies looked towards mobility. Reasonably lightweight, easy to maintain, and relatively quiet, the bicycle earned itself a valuable role during the First World War. 

Image: [Canadian Messenger with German spring tire bicycle], A.S. English Fonds, Collections CCGW/CCGG, 2016.3.1.1-43.
The origins of the bicycle in warfare date much farther back than the First World War. As early as 1870, the French were using bicycles during the Franco-Prussian War and as recent as 1902, the British were experimenting with it during the Second Boer War in South Africa. Thus, it came as no surprise when the Canadian Expeditionary Force formed the Canadian Divisional Cyclists (later the 1st Canadian Divisional Cyclist Company) in 1914. Predominantly formed by the men of the Corps of Guides, the cyclists sailed for England aboard the Ruthenia in October, 1914.
Known alternatively as the “Suicide Battalion,”  the duties of the cyclists proved to be incredibly dangerous. These included gathering intelligence, laying and maintaining telephone wires, delivering messages, training border patrols, and acting as trench guides. Their ability to manoeuvre between battlefields and well ahead of a force meant they were ideal for gathering intelligence, performing surveillance and reconnaissance, and obtaining “battle-winning information”. [1] However, their varied duties also made it difficult to keep track of them, and in May 1916, the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Canadian Divisional Cyclist Companies were amalgamated to form the Canadian Corps Cyclist Battalion. The newly formed Canadian Corps Cyclist Battalion began performing tunnelling duties and operation rail lines, with their most famous tunnels being those near Neuville-Saint-Vaast. [2] Integral to the assault on Vimy ridge in April 1917, the Battalion came together for the first time as a proper fighting force.

The Canadian Corps Cyclist Battalion was disbanded in November, 1920. As such, there is no perpetuating unit or Battalion Association advocating for the Battalion’s Service during the First World War. However, there are efforts currently underway to see the Battalion formally honoured by the Canadian Battle Honours Committee. Headed by the descendants of those who formed the Canadian Corps Cyclist Battalion, they intend to shed light on a history that is seldom shared.

[1] War Office, Cyclist Training (Provisional), 1914.
[2] Ellis, W.D. Saga of the Cyclists in the Great War, 1914-1918. Canadian Corps Cyclist Battalion Association: 1965. pp. 58-9.


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